A sustainable Christmas

December means time spent with family, winter warmers, festive feasts and winding down. It is also married with the hustle and bustle of Christmas shopping, overeating, waste and commercialism. Over the Christmas period we tend to shut off from our usual duties and indulge in the season’s treats. In fact, over the festive period, the UK produces 30% more waste than usual. Should all our festivities cost so much for our environment? How do we tackle Christmas waste and make the season of giving a gift to our environment as well as our families? Here are a few ideas that might help.


Please include attribution to http://londoncleaningsystem.co.uk/ with this graphic.


O Christmas Tree, O Christmas Tree…

Both natural and artificial trees cause an environmental impact. Approximately 6 million Christmas trees are discarded each year; which equates to 250 tonnes of Christmas trees that are thrown away after Christmas instead of composted/recycled (London Cleaning System). Whilst real Christmas trees - evergreen conifers - are replanted in rotation, providing an ongoing home for wildlife, Christmas trees plantations offer limited diversity for natural habitats. Poorly managed plantations can lead to soil degradation (Woodland Trust). Obviously, the use of a Christmas tree is a short-lived gift and most Christmas trees end up in landfill, despite being renewable and biodegradable. Artificial trees are also not so ‘green’. They are made with Petroleum-derived plastic PVC trees are non-renewable and are polluting; adding to the emission of carcinogens. In addition, lead is often used to create the needles which can cause negative health impacts presenting a real hazard! Asking people to forego their Christmas tree experience is going to be a challenge to say the least! So, here’s a few things we can spread the word about:

Picking a Christmas Tree

• Artificial: There is no such thing as an entirely eco-friendly artificial tree. Let’s not mistake reusable for green. Once these trees have fulfilled their Christmas use they will end up in landfill. What can you look for to lessen your impact? Try a PE plastic tree which is made from polyethylene rather than PVC and lead. Keeping your artificial tree for as long as you can will reduce it's impact. 

• Real: Try and find a locally grown tree. Look for sustainable growers such as Christmas Tree Sale Centres. After Christmas think about shredding and composting your tree, burning it for firewood or recycling. Check out your council’s Christmas tree scheme – they might even pick it up from your house.

• Alive: If you want a real tree – think about a potted tree. Think of UK grown trees to cut down on transport: Blue Spruce or Nordman. At the end of Christmas, the family can celebrate by replanting their tree for a few years’ time (trees may take a few years to recuperate). This is a great way to do something outdoors with the family, foster a sense of responsibility for our Christmas trees and reap the rewards of growing a tree year after year.

On the first day of Christmas my true love sent to me…

Whether you are a high street shopper or do your shopping online, Christmas calls for presents! Gidgets, gadgets, novelty gifts, basics, his & hers are some of the things we end up buying and gift wrapping before the big day. Some of these things we use and are grateful for, some of which end up being forgotten all too quick and discarded. Along with the presents 30,000 tonnes of card packaging, 1 billion cards and 227,000 miles of wrapping paper are thrown away at Christmas time. Here are some ideas to limit waste when sending gifts this Christmas:

Sustainable Gifts

• Consider where you are buying from. Santa travels all the way around the world to deliver his presents – as do most of our gifts. 4,000 tonnes of Christmas presents come from China each year. Support small businesses and buy locally – this has the added benefit that you can refuse any extra packaging at the till such as plastic bags.

• Look for sustainable, battery-free and durable gifts. There are plenty of options out there including recycled materials for clothing and children’s toys. Replace plastic toys and gadgets for more durable materials such as metal and wood.

• Make your own. Making your own gifts is special, cheaper and more festive than a ‘click-click’. A simple start is to make your own wrapping paper and cards. From there who knows… hand knitted gifts, home-made sweets, hand-carved ornaments… There are endless ideas for package-free and thoughtful pressies that will really impress! Check out Pinterest for endless ideas!

• Pass on the gift of sustainable living. Look for pressies that will promote a sustainable lifestyle. A reusable coffee cup, a bicycle, a national trust pass or subscription for something outside; gardening starter kits or a seasonal veggie box subscription. Gifts that keep on giving.

Bring me some figgy pudding…

“I can’t eat another bite” is a sign of a happy Christmas. We certainly get bombarded with advertisements suggesting more sophisticated feast ideas. But what happens to all the waste food? Approximately we throw away 2 million turkeys, 74 million mince pies and 17.2 million brussel sprouts each year. Followed by 13,350 tonnes of glass which is thrown out in the UK. In total it is estimated that food accounts for 19% of domestic waste! Our food travels from around the world to end up being discarded before its eaten. Or costing us further by taking up space in land-fill. Here’s a few ideas on how to reduce food waste:

Reducing food waste

• Try organic turkey’s sourced locally or rear your own.

• Cut your carbon footprint by buying fruit and veg locally or try a local food box.

• Refuse packaging. Buy loose veggies and scan them without plastic packaging at the till. Buying loose fruit and veggies is sometimes cheaper than those that are packaged!

• Compost your waste! At Christmas we get clogged up with waste in the kitchen, waiting for the next bin-day to arrive. Make it easy. Start a compost bin and enjoy a guilt free trip to the garden to make up new space in the kitchen.

• Cut down on meat or go vegetarian. Meat is a major contributor to our greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing or replacing meat dishes with tasty vegetarian dishes is one way to help reduce your carbon footprint.

Being sustainable is certainly not at the top of the list when it comes to most people’s Christmas. Statistics on waste don’t exactly spread Christmas cheer. But you don’t need to turn into the Grinch to make a few alterations at Christmas time. This Christmas take small steps to pass on the message.

Merry Christmas!

Minimum Impact Fires

Now I don't think there is a person amongst us who can't appreciate the warmth, security and entertainment a camp fire brings when we're enjoying wild, outdoor places. But fires are all too often misused, and frequently damage the landscape and surrounding habitats. 

When I ask outdoor users about the need for a fire answers usually fall into one, or more than one, of three categories:

"We need it to cook and keep warm"

"We enjoy sitting around it, it encourages conversation!"

"It keeps away wild animals"


Well yes, having a fire can serve a purpose. They can transform a camping experience into a enjoyable, social gathering. They certainly have their place amongst outdoor education as an ultimate way of brining students 'back to nature', learning new skills, and gaining an appreciation of managing risk and danger. 

Let's not forget the relationship between humans and fire is one of the oldest, and the power to control fire separates humans from the rest of the animal world. But, as I'm sure I've heard somewhere before...'with great power comes great responsibility'. 


The thing is, fire is no longer essential for comfort or food preparation. Many of the lasting impacts associated with campfires are easily avoided by carrying a light weight cooker and pot. Using a cooker also removes the requirement to forage for wood, and eating habits are likely to be a lot cleaner - attracting less animals in the longer term. 


If you insist on having a fire, a few simple guidelines can ensure greatly reduced impact:

Judge wind, weather, wood availability. Is it a safe and responsible place to make a fire?

Is there any provision for a fire? An existing grate or stove, have you thought about carrying a lightweight fire pan?

Do you have the time to build a 'Leave No Trace' fire and clean up appropriately?

Building a 'Mound Fire' fire: Mound fires are built on piles of sand, gravel or soil. The mound sits on top of a tarp, or even a bivvi bag or bin bag. Whatever you use, the edges can be rolled and buried under the mound to prevent any singeing.  

It's easiest if you carry a small trowel to collect material for your mound. The kinds for digging 'cat holes' are ideal. The material can be collected from a nearby location and carried in an old stuff sack or bin bag to your fire site.

Your tarp (or whatever you choose) is laid on the floor, and the soil placed on top and compacted into a mound 6-8 inches thick and 18-24 inches in diameter.

A good sized mound prevents heat from the fire reaching the ground, and provides a manageable platform that doesn't encourage the fire to grow bigger than needed.

When looking for fuel, dead and downed wood is most preferable - ideally sticks that can be broken by hand and no larger than  your wrist. Larger pieces of wood play an important role in nutrition and soil productivity, as well as providing shelter for small animals and many plant species.

Smaller firewood burns completely to a fine ash, making cleaning up easier. Half burnt logs are difficult to dispose of and encourage future, larger fires. Once the fire is completely out, bearing in mind the amount of time needed to burn all those little stick ends, the ash can be scattered, or mixed with the soil from the mound and returned to the ground where it was first taken.

Before leaving, try to restore the appearance of the fire site by replacing any surface debris and sweeping the area for litter and food waste.

The choice to become a responsible outdoor user is ultimately yours, but as more people spend time in our wild places it's surely important to encourage minimal impact. By thinking about your location and purpose, and by following some straightforward guidelines it is possible to enjoy a fire outdoors without leaving any trace! 

If you're interested in learning more Leave No Trace techniques, have you considered joining one of our courses?

Leave No Trace Training Courses and Workshops





Signs of Animals in the Snow

Winter time is great for tracking animals, not only does it provide an interesting activity when the higher summits can be somewhat inaccessible, it also happens to be the time when animal tracks are easiest to spot and follow.

Animals such as birds and some amphibians draw a fair amount of attention to themselves so it's easy to know when they're around. Mammals, on the other hand, are secretive and silent for most of the year. Fortunately, they leave the most definite signs of passage.

Read on to find out more about animal tracks!

The first thing to deal with is some basic tracking terminology that will help to explain and highlight certain things later down the line.  

A 'Track' is an impression left in soft ground, or snow.

A collection of tracks, as well as accessory marks such as tail or body drag,  becomes a 'Trail'.

Trails are able to tell us many things about a particular animal. For example its age, sex, condition and speed it was moving.


Successfully tracking animals does not rely on some mystic gift. It's really down to observation and placing together bits of information that have been laid down in front of you by animals that have passed by earlier.
Even just by having a good look for animal tracks you can turn any countryside walk into a view into the life of our animals! 
Animal tracks can be broken into two categories, those with Cleaves and those with Pads.
Cleaves belong to animals classed as 'Ungulates', either odd-toed such as horses or even-toed such as cattle, pigs and deer. The impressions of the cleaves are called 'slots' and sometimes a 'dew claw' is shown depending on species. Reindeer will show in any circumstance, as will Wild Boar, others when the ground is soft and others still never at all.

Those with pads include digital pads, interdigital pads and proximal pads. The digital pads are most likely to be presented, and proximal pads only usually presented if the impression is set deep into the ground, possibly if the animal has been running..


This is the track of a Hare bounding in the direction toward the photographer. The direction can be determined as the two larger pads (hind fore) strike the ground in-front of the smaller pads (front fore) before pushing the front fore forward again.
Distinctively different to the track of this Fox, whose arrow straight track (heading off toward Mont Blanc in this case!) is characteristic of predator tracks.

Notice how all four pads are in a single line, or very close to, the centre line of the body. There is also a direct registration of each pad, which differs from a dog who's pads frequently overlap, known as an indirect registration.

 Squirrel tracks are most often found (unsurprisingly?) at the base of trees. They are given away by their butterfly shaped outline, where the hind pads again land in-front of the fore pads and are further from the centre line. In the above  photo the Squirrel is heading toward the trees.

When's the best time to see tracks?

Seeing signs of animals is easiest when the sun is casting a slight shadow over the ground, so either in the morning or the evening. Of course they're still there at midday, but the overhead sun tends to drown the tracks out and make following them trickier. 

Looking at the best medium for tracks also provides the highest likelihood of finding something and being able to identify what kind of animal it was. A dusting of light, fresh snow on a hard surface, such as a back-garden patio makes an excellent medium for seeing tracks.

Deeper snow is great for finding small mammals and bird tracks as they leave crisp, detailed impressions. However with larger mammals, detail is often distorted and enlarged.


So next time your enjoying a winter walk, take a look below your feet and see what other animals are enjoying sharing the countryside with you! 

Leave No Trace in the U.K.

What is Leave No Trace

In its simplest form, 'leave no trace' is the practice of using our wild areas in a way that reduces impact to a minimum. The phrase was used  during the 60’s and 70’s in the United States following a large increase in the amount of visitors to wild areas due to the introduction of recreational equipment such as synthetic tents and gas stoves.

The ‘United States Forest Service’ in conjunction with NOLS – the National Outdoor Leadership School, developed the national education program of Leave No Trace in 1990. Since 1994 the “Leave No Trace Centre For Outdoor Ethics”, a non-profit organisation, has existed to educate about recreational impact on nature as well as how to prevent and minimise these impacts through utilisation of seven key principles.

The Leave No Trace organisation has since provided hands on training, workshops and events for over 9.5 million children and adults with representatives in more than 30 countries. There are now international centres in the U.S.A, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand.

 Leave No Trace Training Courses and Workshops

 The Seven Principles

 Plan Ahead and Prepare

Knowing where you want to go, being prepared for weather changes and emergencies. Where possible, avoiding times of high use and splitting larger groups into smaller.
Pre packing food and removing excess wrapping.

Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces

Sticking to established trails of rock, dry grass or snow. Where paths are muddy, stick to the middle rather than walking around.
"Good campsites are found, not made."

Dispose of Waste Properly

Check your campsites and stopping areas for rubbish and spilled food.
"Pack it in, pack it out."
Human waste in a 'cathole' at least 200 feet from water - take tissue out with you! Better still, refer to rule one. 

Leave What You Find

Avoid picking live flowers in delicate areas.
"Preserve the past"
Examine, but do not touch or move historic structures and artifacts.

Minimise Campfire Impact

Fires cause long lasting impact on the environment, consider lightweight stoves for cooking where possible. 
Use established fire rings or fire pans, and burn only the required wood to a fine ash.  

Respect Wildlife

Observe fauna from a distance and avoid feeding and encouragement.

Keep pets under control when appropriate.

Be Considerate of Other Visitors

Courtesy and politeness goes a long way!
 Pause in a convenient place to let others pass whilst walking, take breaks and camp off the path. 

More Than 7 Rules

At Life Trek Adventures we feel these seven principles offer a great basis for minimum impact outdoor recreation, they can be applied in any location during any sport or activity. They are also brilliant for teaching with younger children, and make an ideal starter point for those looking deeper into development of environmental ethics. 

However, Leave No Trace is also often reduced to seven principles to follow like a guidebook. It is clearly more than this, it is about developing an individual’s relationship and stewardship for the outdoors. For us, it is an area of education often missed within the curriculum and one that should substantiate and be at the heart of outdoor education. 

As more and more people begin to use the United Kingdoms wild spaces for their own recreational activities, it is of clear importance to promote practice that encourages sustainability. This can start from an early age and in easy to access locations such as a local park or woodland, even in a back garden. 

If you would like to attend a Leave no Trace Trainer course or Awareness Workshop, please get in touch using the contact page!


The Impact of Adventure Activities in the Roaches.


This study compares a low grade accessible and popular route; Rocking Stone Gully, graded V Diff at the Lower tier (Site A) with a less popular high grade route; Ascent of Man, graded E3 6a at the Lower tier (Site B) at the Roaches to determine biodiversity and measure the environmental impact of rock climbers. The Roaches was selected as a popular and historic climbing venue.

Rock climbing has been highlighted for causing environmental impact by Attarian (1996) and Cole (1993). It was hypothesized the biodiversity would decrease closer to the base of the two crags, site A would have a lower biodiversity to site B and soil density would increase nearer the base of the crags and at Site A. Biodiversity was measured by the number of species, the percentage of plant cover and soil density within quadrats of convenience increasing in distance from the base of the crag.

Results supported the hypothesis with high soil density nearer the crag bases, and greater biodiversity at Site B. Possible remedies include education in environmental responsibility for climbers and closing off certain crags for restoration and rehabilitation.


The Roaches is a historic gritstone climbing venue owned by the Peak District National Park Authority (British Mountaineering Council 2009). With a plethora of British traditional grades from Moderate (low beginner grade) to E8 (very high advanced grade), the crag’s diversity has attracted many climbers (British Mountaineering Council 2009).

Such high usage has a negative impact upon the environment. The British Mountaineering Council (2013) warns of environmental damage occurring at the Lower and Upper Tier crags at the Roaches, encouraging climbers to use established footpaths, not short-cuts on moorland areas, restrict leaving litter and human waste and restrict abseiling. Attarian (1996) establishes general impacts to crags caused by rock climbers: visual damage, sanitary damage, increasing soil compaction, erosion, multiple trails and disturbance to wildlife and vegetation.

Cole (1993) considers the impact of recreational activities, and warns activities such as rock climbing, can impact the vegetation by erosion and path formation, trampling, uprooting and damage which risks death and impacts the food chain to grazing animals. Liddle (1975) examines how trampling affects stem height, seed and flower production and carbohydrate reserves, reducing reproduction of plants. Cole (1993) mptes compaction and erosion of the upper layer of soil, the organic horizon, an important layer of dead organic matter that increases the absorption of water into soil thereby decreasing water runoff.

This research investigated whether rock climbers visiting the Roaches have a detrimental effect to the biodiversity and percentage of species local to the environment.
Hypothesis: The biodiversity, number of species measured and plant cover percentage, will decrease closer to the base of the crag. Increased damage will be recorded at the more popular crag (Site A). Soil density will be greater nearer the base of the crag and at the popular crag (Site A).


Design: A study was designed to compare the impact of a popular crag: Rocking Stone Gully, graded Very Difficult at the Lower tier (site A), and a less popular route: Ascent of Man, graded E3 6a at the Lower tier (site B) (Appendix A). Old text by Hurlbert (1984) promotes comparative or manipulative experiments as measurements of a property within an ecological system at two points to ascertain differences. Both points of comparison were taken at the Lower Tier to minimise the chance extraneous variables could affect the data; less trees could create more sunlight which could be responsible for the difference in biodiversity and richness of species.

To generate quadrats, a 10-meter rope was used at 90 degrees to the base of the crag downhill. At 1 meter intervals, a quadrat of convenience was taken maximising the percentage of ground cover and minimising the percentage of rock cover. The quadrat was a 220cm sling using 4 pegs to provide a 55cm by 55cm square and a volume of 3025cm².

To measure biodiversity, the number of species was recorded. Dupuis and Joanchim (2006) term the quantity of species present in a specified sample region as species richness. Krebs (1989) encourages quadrats for estimating species richness in a biological community when the researcher does not want to sample the entire region. Dupuis and Goulard (2011) suggest the sample region is divided into special units termed quadrats for convenience, generally of equal size and numbered 1 to the total sample size, to visually record species detected (Dupis and Goulard 2011).

Morris et al. (1995) warn quadrats can be subjective to observer error and small, randomly placed samples such as portable quadrats providing poor, inaccurate data. The quadrats were photographed to provide visual research data validity, reducing observer subjectivity. Manning and Freimund (2004) promote visual research methods for measuring the impact of outdoor recreation, providing a valid representation of visitor standards at the site.
Three factors were tested within each quadrat; the number of species, the percentage of plant cover, and soil density. The number of species and percentage of plant cover were measured visually through counting and estimation of proportion. Williams et al. (2001) offer the probability of detecting species depends on how identifiable the species are. Measuring species and plant cover might lack accuracy however; small quadrats provided sufficient time to confirm data.

Soil density was taken throughout the quadrat providing an average measurement. A tent peg was inserted into the ground with practiced, consistent pressure performed by the same person for continuity. The peg was measured with a ruler, measuring peg height above ground to calculate soil penetration. This test mimicked static cone penetrometers, which measure soil density by applying force into the ground at a constant velocity until it can be pushed no longer (Jones and Kunze 2004). The reliability and accuracy of using a tent peg instead of a penetrometer is reduced as human error is greater in maintaining constant velocity and pressure.

To ensure safe practice a risk assessment was completed. Risk assessments are advised for environmental studies for determining the probability and magnitude of risk and offer a means of decision-making and consideration for the benefits of environmental action or land use (Brown 1988). Equally, risk should be determined in terms of potential ethical impact (Brown 1988).


Figure 2: Number of Species with increasing distance from the base of Rocking Stone Gully VD (Site A)

As predicted in the hypothesis, the biodiversity of the crag is reduced nearer the base of the crag, illustrated by figure 2 as the base of the crag (0->3m) has no species present. McMillan and Larson (2002) note the base of the crag, the talus, is used as a belay stance, a rest position for climbers, a place for storing and sorting packs and gear and commonly very rocky. This high intensive usage of the talus could correlate to the lack of species richness. McMillan and Larson (2002) also consider hikers a major source of disturbance on the talus. Climbers moving around from crag to crag account for disturbance.

Such impact is demonstrated by a recently uprooted tree at the base of Piece of Mind crag, near Site A. This could be due to a lack of nutrients or water within the soil resulting in the death of the tree, suggesting the base of the crag and talus has been damaged by climbers and is struggling to sustain species.

Figure 3: environmental damage present at Piece of Mind crag and just to the right of Site A

McMillan and Larson (2002) found in a study measuring climbed and unclimbed routes, an increase in species richness and percent cover for unclimbed crags. Comparing this with Sites A and B, there is more plant percent cover and species richness at site B (less frequently climbed) (figure 4). The species richness does not reach the same quantity as Site A, but is more consistent in cover across the distance measured, including the base of the crag.

Figure 4: Number of species with increasing distance from the base of Ascent of Man E3 6a (Site B)
Figure 5: Graph to represent the percentage of rock and plant cover with increasing distance from the base of Rocking Stone Gully VD (Site A)

Figure 5 demonstrates an increase in plant cover percent with increasing distance from the base of the crag. At 5 and 9/10 meters a path intersects the line of measurements, reflected by a sudden decrease in plant cover. The percentage of rock is illustrated to understand the layout of the quadrats. Despite positioning quadrats in areas of convenience at marked intervals of 1m from the crag, there were quadrats where rock formed part of the cover, reducing the plant cover for sampling.

Figure 6: Graph to represent the percentage of rock and plant cover with increasing distance from the base of Ascent of Man E3 6a (Site B)

Figure 6 illustrates Site B, where a much higher and consistent plant cover percent with a range of 95-100%. This confirms the hypothesis that Site B, the less frequently climbed route, has more plant cover than Site A.

Figure 7: Graph to represent the Soil Density (cm) with increasing distance from the base of Rocking Stone Gully VD (Site A)

Figure 7 demonstrates high soil density at the base of the crag which is a popular site for groups to belay from, leaving packs and gear. At 5 and 9/10 meters where paths intersect, the soil density increases, seen by a reduction in the depth (cm) the peg was able to penetrate. This suggests in areas of high intensity usage and footfall, there is a higher soil density. Comparatively, the density of Site B is much less with higher penetration values across the distance measured. Pickering and Hill (2007) evaluate daily use such as trampling, causes damage to the mineral soil exposure, compaction and plant cover. Site B is able to maintain minerals, equal density and an organic horizon which Cole (1993) reports important so soils can absorb water, decrease water runoff and decompose natural organic waste.

Figure 8: Graph to represent the Soil Density (cm) with increasing distance from the base of Ascent of Man E3 6a (Site B)


The results indicate rock climbing and recreational activities cause environmental damage such as complete loss of species, high soil density and path erosion at the base of the crag measured to sample the impacts of group use (Site A) (0->3m). The species of richness is greater at Site B and more consistent with percentage of plant cover, indicating less effect of rock climbers causing environmental impact at this site. The results support the hypothesis that high use of crags for rock climbing causes more damage than low use. This study was limited to comparing two sites; further research should compare multiple sites and monitor the number of people using the crags regularly.

Attrian (1996) approaches the solution to environmental impact as climber education regarding environmental impact and increased awareness and responsibility for the environment and a hands-on approach with community and management processes. Such as educating climbers to leave no trace and pick up litter left by others. Sanitation has been marked by the British Mountaineering Council (2013) as a problem causing environmental disturbance (Figure 9). Human waste indirectly affects the environment through acceleration of some species growth and directly through removal of soil and vegetation to dig a hole (Pickering and Hill 2007). Attarian (1996) also notes poor sanitation as an environmental impact. In solution sanitation and pollution, Hanemann (2000) encourages making rock climbing more accessible by constructing pathways to crags, toilets, rubbish bins, parking and bolting routes to stop people lighting fires and damaging vegetation. The disadvantage is reduction in the sense of adventure some climbers relish and the negative impact of increased participation. Ebert and Robertson (2007) describe traditional climbers search for exploration and risk and being in a remote area, seeking gratification in increasing self-reliance to overcome obstacles.

Figure 9: Litter present at Site A - Evidence of poor practice and consideration of the environment at a popular climbing crag

Whilst it is unfavourable to close off an area of climbing where damage has occurred, the damage caused requires restoration and time to recuperate. Cole (1994) advocates removing the disturbance can provide quick recovery. However, the practicality of blocking access is difficult, especially at a popular venue such as the Roaches. Additionally, closing one section will increase the areal extent of damage (McMillan and Larson 2002). McMillan and Larson (2002) believe providing information on the ecological rational the restrictions will produce positive reactions. Nuzzo (1995) considers more than two years is required to restore damage to heavily used crags. A more adaptive approach would be to monitor progress of the crag talus and dynamically assess when the crag is ready to accommodate climbers. Further, Kuntz and Larson (2006) highlight the need for research into the environmental impact of rock climbing both on the plateau and talus.

Figures 10-15: Erosion from Crag with increasing distance: Site B (left), Site A (right)

If you are interested in this subject and would like to know more or check out the references, please use the contact us page.

Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education

The new generation of Western children have a reported decrease in outdoor play opportunities (Waller et al. 2010; Gill 2007; Sandseter et al. 2012). Outdoor play presents many benefits to children’s development and if neglected can result in physical, environmental and developmental implications. This blog explores the need of outdoor play against the constraints of risk and school curriculum, taking example from other countries to recommend solutions for including outdoor play within children's education.

The benefits and drawbacks of outdoor play:

Norwegian theory-based research from Sandseter and Kennair (2011) suggests outdoor play can develop children’s physical, social and mental competencies. This is supported by an observational study conducted in America by Maxwell et al. (2008) which found outdoor play can stimulate constructive play and develop communication and negotiation skills. Further, McArdle et al. (2013) from the UK, used ethnographic approaches finding outdoor play can increase resilience, confidence, empathy to others and the environment, increase motivation, perseverance and the ability to cope.

The rationale for outdoor play and learning derive from Mortlock’s (1984) theory that education is unbalanced. Mortlock (1984) advocates mental development as the most important area of development and warns that traditional teaching methods ignore physical and emotional development and the development of the inner self (the conscience, heart and spirit). Mortlock’s (1984) suggests experience in wilderness offers holistic development and should be made available to all children.

Despite the cultural differences of these studies the benefits are acknowledged and indicate the need for outdoor play to be integrated within school and curriculum. However, there are factors which act as constraints to outdoor play such as risk, proximity to outdoor sites, curriculum constraints and influence from parents and educators (Kos and Jerman 2013). Wyver et al. (2010) consider this risk averse attitude escalates the potential for adverse development and health outcomes. Therefore it is important to consider the benefits against the drawbacks drawing upon different cultural examples of outdoor play to consider the best balance of education and play for early childhood.

Integrating Outdoor Education alongside Curriculum:

Waite et al. (2013) advocate it is important to include plenty of play-based activities alongside curriculum based activities as children make the transition from early year and primary education. This presents a predicament as learning and teaching methods in school seek to prove their standards of education by measurable results and outcomes making it difficult to integrate outdoor play and learning which involve humanistic approaches of frivolous and self-actualized learning (Waite and Davis 2007). Rogers (2011) highlights this as a contemporary issue whereby teachers are faced with a dilemma on how best to balance play-based pedagogy and the curriculum. Perhaps the competitive nature of education standards has been at the detriment of play based education for children.

Little and Wyver (2008) reflect Australia’s methods of reducing risky play for children undermines teacher’s capabilities to make pedagogical decisions. This suggests the curriculum and standardisation of education limits teachers and schools to make their own decisions.

Children’s outdoor play and learning is often avoided due to the risks and dangers of allowing children to explore the natural environment. However, it is necessary to evaluate whether these risks justify preventing outdoor play, whether they can be managed and how cultural attitudes affect perceptions of outdoor play. Burke (2005) identifies institutionalisation and a culture of fear has affected children’s contact with nature.

A constructivist study based in Slovakia by Kos and Jerman (2013) aimed to identify the barriers of outdoor play and learning and the perceptions of safety and outdoor play the teachers had, finding accessibility, staff ratios, the disturbance to daily routines, curriculum constraints, dangers, weather, adverse parental attitude and lack of control as obstacles of outdoor play and learning. Kos and Jerman (2013) found out of these concerns many are safety related supporting Sandseter’s (2009) theories of risk as a preventing factor for outdoor play. The obstacles identified by Kos and Jerman (2013) are similar to those in different countries found previously by Waite (2010). Kos and Jerman (2013) further consider the teacher’s perceptions believe structured activities as more important and beneficial than play and free time. This conclusion was also drawn from research in Wales by Maynard and Waters (2007). Further, Sandseter et al. (2012) consider teacher’s understanding of outdoor learning to impact the provision. This identifies why teachers who disregard or are uneducated about outdoor play exclude it from their teaching.

However, Kos and Jerman’s (2013) research also highlights other more practical barriers such as equipment and staff which require practical solutions. By addressing practical barriers and offering more research about the benefits of outdoor play to help teacher’s create informed decisions, more teachers may choose to include it into their teaching.

Is outdoor education beneficial?

Taylor and Kuo (2006) question whether children really need contact with nature or whether it is a romantic notion. Defending this claim, Sandseter and Kennair (2011) advocate natural play provides challenges and exposure to risk which is a necessary component of children’s growth developing autonomy and competence. Further Stephenson (2003) believes interaction with danger increases children’s self-confidence and coping of danger. Therefore outdoor playtime is more than an opportunity for physical activity but offers other aspects of development. McArdle et al. (2013) found nature provided a learning climate which suited some children better than a classroom did. This demonstrates how a varied learning environment can benefit children.

Norway is a prime example of how outdoor play and learning can be integrated into schools. Moser and Martinsen (2010) detail how Norwegian environments have been designed for children and public use with over half Norwegian Kindergartens being equip with woodlands, 70% of which have climbing trees. Sandseter et al. (2012) note within Norwegian schools play is regarded an intrinsic part of the child’s culture and outdoor play is emphasised reflecting the Norwegian’s dominating concept of Friluftsliv whereby outdoor activities are part of everyday life. Whist Alexander (2001) found schooling is predominantly teacher led in the USA, Russia, France, India and England, Waite et al. (2013) found Nordic countries are less dominated by hierarchical pedagogy with the schooling system reflecting their cultural values of democracy and freedom. As such the Norwegian national curriculum is used as a broad template rather than a dictation of criteria allowing children to act as social agents and generally giving more competence to children (Waite et al. 2013). Sandseter et al. (2012) consider teacher’s positive approach to risky play allows children to experience challenges and risk which are beneficial to their development. Despite their advantageous natural setting, Norwegian schools have developed a unified pedagogy incorporating outdoor play as part of the culture.

Is Risk to Children Acceptable?

Wilson (2008) considers frequent experiences with nature are important for children’s development. Diener and Lucas (2004) found in a study across 48 countries parents want their children to demonstrate happiness and fearlessness. However, Australian text from Niehues et al. (2013) found despite parent’s valuing risk-taking, adventure and play, they limit their children from experiencing such qualities to protect them from negative consequences.

According to Price et al. (2013) this has prevented children playing within their neighbourhoods. This results in ‘islands’ of safety such as home and school (Kernan 2010). Further, Clements (2004) found as a substitute to outdoor play children spend increasing after school time watching TV, playing computer and video games and despite mothers recognising the benefits of outdoor play, 82% of the mothers studied considered crime and safety concerns as a reason to prevent their children from playing outdoors. Niehues et al. (2013) suggest a reframing intervention is needed to challenge faulty schemas and provide positive risk taking. Consequently, schools need to address this issue and restore children’s opportunity to play outdoors.

What can Schools do to include outdoor play?

The implications of this position is for schools to work to improve the exposure children get to nature. This can be achieved through:

Providing natural spaces within the school site or by visiting local natural sites. This presents a limitation as some schools are not close to natural sites.

Taking example from Norway, better town planning can be made to allow children and adults spaces to explore nature.

Maynard (2008) found due to children losing their connectivity to the environment and the need to address environmental concerns such as reducing carbon footprints, Ecoschools have begun to promote sustainable development through education.

Maynard (2008) encourages schools to use the outdoor environment to support learning across the curriculum such as food, farming and the countryside. In addition to contact with nature children require increased outdoor play. Within the England and Wales this can be seen to be in action as in 2010 a new emphasis to move from formal teaching approaches to informal indoor and outdoor play-based approaches for the foundation phase of education began (Maynard 2008).

Teacher training to consider ways to introduce learning outside the classroom.

In conclusion, whilst outdoor texts consider natural and outdoor play and learning an important component of children’s development, educational texts draw on the ethical and practical reasons outdoor play and learning are limited. Cultural examples have demonstrated outdoor play can become an integrated part of education. However, this requires teachers to understand the benefits of outdoor play, and schools to seek methods of providing natural spaces. This is of growing importance as children lose their interaction and respect of nature within an environment which is increasingly fragile. Therefore outdoor play within education could benefit and enrich children’s education and help reconnect children to the environment.


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Mountain Flora of the United Kingdom


So named as naughty welsh fairies would offer the glove like flower to foxes for sneaking up on chicken roosts.

Through the winter when the plant loses its flowers, the leaves form a rosette to maintain a higher and more stable temperature.

The roots produce Digitalis, a drug used to treat Congestive Heart Failure.


A deciduous plant with a series of simple stalks which provide edible berries. Bilberry jam was given to WW2 pilots to maintain vitamin C intake.
Despite losing its leaves in the winter, the green stems still permit photosynthesis.


Small white and pink flowers typically found on scree slopes and spoil tips.

Sphagnum Moss

Able to absorb up to 20 times its dry weight in water, commonly found lining a hanging basket! Sphagnum is a coloniser and changes the PH balance of the soil making it difficult for other plants to grow.

Used by injured soldiers in war to sterilise wounds.



Star Moss

Popular on the hills and growing in clumps in damp areas. The four-sided caps release spores into the air for reproduction. In some countries it is used to make tea to dissolve kidney stones.

Woolly Hair Moss

Growing on hills and exposed rocks. It dies out and becomes grey but once wet returns to green immediately.


Simple plants which grow in wet places such as streams.

Their thin leaves are poorly adapted to drying out.


Fir – Alpine – Stag’s Horn

These plants have been around for nearly 400 million years and are one of the oldest plant groups still growing, pre-dating flowering plants by 275 million years. They would have grown up to 30m tall, and their remains are the bulk of the organic material forming coal.



Blood Eye Lichen

A crustose lichen that covers acid rocks in the uplands. Underneath the green lichen forms a snake like texture on top of which the fruiting bodies produce blood red discs. Often found on long abandoned settlements.

Devils Matchstick

Most commonly found lichen which flowers on top.

It grows on rotting wood and peat.

Dog Lichen

Its Latin name, Peltigera Membrancea means shield carrying.

It is one of the larger-lobed lichens with grey and brown colour when wet and found in open damp meadows.

Rhizocarpon Geographicum

Known as map lichen. A crustose lichen easily found on sunny acidic rocks.

It is bright yellow with small black fruiting bodies.



Pixie Cup Lichen

Small rounded cups, and commonly found on rotting wood, on walls and among mosses. It can withstand pollution.

The two types; Cladonia Pyxidata and Cladonia Fimbriata are easily confused. The latter used to cure the whooping cough.

Reindeer Moss

A fruticose lichen, growing in mats of white and light green colour.

It is a typical ‘model railway tree’ lichen, common on heaths and peat bogs.

Barren Strawberry

Low and hairy perennials with white flowers. Growing on dry grounds and in the woods.
The fruits are dry and not as yummy as real strawberries. Its welsh name LLwyn coeg-fefus means empty strawberry shrub.

Mossy Saxifrage

Creating a moss like mat to protect from the dry winds found higher upland.

It is an arctic-alpine species often found on rock ledges and seen in quantity around Cwm Idwal.



Wood Sorrel

A woodland species preferring shade, often confused with clovers or, when flowering, the Snowdon lily.

When fresh the leaves taste like green apples but should be eaten sparingly as they can bind calcium in the body leading to nutrient deficiency.

Heath Bedstraw

Grows small white flowers in grassy places from June to August and creates a dense mat like layer, mixing with other grasses.

Once spread on stone floors for its fragrance, although not everyone like the smell…


It can flower either blue, pink, mauve or white! Common in calcareous (lime rich) and acid (lime deficient) grassland areas.
The leaves can be used for tea. Named so as it is thought that the plant can increase the milk flow of a nursing mother.


A small four-petal flower with the nickname ‘walkers companion’.

Found between April and October and on every grassy hill. It looks small but can grow up to a meter searching for sunlight.

A tea can be made from the roots and is a medical marvel said to cure fever, diarrhoea, burns, cholera, dysentery, sore throats, irritable bowel syndrome & mouth ulcers.




Grows in nitrogen deficient bogs. Blue flowers group above the starfish like leaves. It is an insectivore trapping insects on its leaves.

Its leaves were once used to curdle milk and as a laxative.

Common Cotton Grass

Grows in acidic bog lands and shows where not to walk.

Used to cure diarrhoea.

Hares Tale Cotton Grass

Similar to cotton grass but only growing in tussocks and with one single flower spike.

Cross Leaved Heath

Usually the first of the three heathers in Snowdonia to flower and prefers wetter ground.
They tend to be pinker than bell heather and the flowers cluster around the head.




Found in acidic soils and able to curdle milk. Another insectivore. The liquid is able to cure warts, corns and bunions.
Tiny pink hairs carry a sticky enzyme to trap insects.

Bell Heather

An evergreen that indicates dry ground.

Produces nectar and haunts for bees.

Ling Heather

Commonly confused with bell heather, it provides food for many sheep.


An evergreen which forms in dense mats. The berries are pink then ripen to black.

Easily identified from a white line on the underside of needles.


Dense clumps of vegetation unpleasant to touch or walk through. It is a coloniser as it blocks the light of other plants.
However, it provides habitat for birds and rodents.



Snowdon Lily

One of the national parks rarest plants growing in just five craggy locations.

Mat Grass

Pale grass that forms dense tufts which always looks dry.

Large patches indicate unsustainably heavy grazing on mountainsides.

Purple Moor Grass

Reddish coloured grass that’s a good indicator of boggy ground. Green when young but red when maturing.
Sheep often avoid this plant nibbling around it whereas cattle would happily have a munch.



Bog Myrtle

A fragrant shrub also known as sweet gale which colonises damp areas. It is able to change its sex from one year to the next.

Midges also avoid bog myrtle making it a natural repellent.



Originally a woodland plant, it spreads across the hillsides. Traditional uses include animal bedding.

However it can harbour ticks which pass Lyme disease to humans and cattle. The spores, released in the autumn are also carcinogenic.

Hard Fern


A common fern found in shady places and rock crevices. The fertile fronds will stand and remain evergreen whilst the unfertile fronds will die away during the winter.

It can be used as an emergency food source and is thought to alleviate thirst, however the leaves are carcinogenic.



Parsley Fern

A coloniser on scree slopes and restricted to well drained acid rocks.
It is a look alike but not taste alike to parsley.

Snowy Waxcap

A white and greasy cap found in sheep cropped grass or open woodland. It is pure white whilst young then tinges ivory with age.
Found late summer to autumn and inedible.

Shaggy Ink Caps


Also known as the judge’s wig, an edible species which can be found on lawns and roadside verges late summer and autumn and best eaten while young.

Not easily confused with other species, it will blacken and turn to an inky fluid.

Shiny Hay Cap

A tall mushroom found in cow dung in Snowdonia’s northern mountains. Growing up to 15cm tall and 5cm across.
When the cap is dry it is shiny- not edible!



Liberty Cap

Known otherwise as ‘magic mushrooms’. They contain the hallucinatory drug Psilocybin.
Growing in sheep cropped grass and distinctive with a pointed bell-shaped cap, tall stem late summer to autumn.

Butter Waxcap

Found in sheep cropped grass in small groups, its greasy cap and dry stem with an orange tinge become flatter as they mature.
They are inedible.

The Holy Ridge – Taiwan

Complete a traverse of the ‘Holy Ridge’ in Taiwan’s Shei-Pa National Park.

The Holy Ridge runs north to south between the striking barrel shaped summit of ‘Dabajian’ (3438m) and Taiwan’s second highest peak ‘Snow Mountain’ (3886m). The local name is ‘Dragons Spine’ and a complete traverse is said to include spending at least four days above 3000m crossing  narrow ridges and scrambling between towering cliff faces.

  The proposed route follows a circular trail starting and finishing at the trail head situated an hour’s walk north of Wuling Recreational Area in Taichung City County, central Taiwan. The climb involves crossing five peaks above 3000m: Both Snow Mountains East and West peaks (3201m, 3703m) along with Pintian Mountain (3524m); Chihyou Mountain (3303m) and Mt. Taoshan (3325m).

The Holy Ridge – Taiwan

The surrounding area boasts an impressive number of summits and as such there is potential to include more by adding the main peak of Snow Mountain (3886M) and the close by Siaobajian (3418m). The Holy Ridge itself is considered to be one of the most stunning hikes Taiwan has to offer but has an infamous reputation for being neither for the inexperienced or feint-hearted.

 Some sections of the ridge require climbing using fixed ropes and as such a good level of judgment is needed to assess their reliability in an environment  where temperatures in the Yilan valley regularly exceed 27’C yet drop below -5’c within the Hsuehshan Mountain Range during the summer, and plummet below 0 to produce fantastic climbing in the winter. 

 Taiwan is easily accessible and filled with numerous adventurous opportunities along with so many other countries surrounding Hong Kong, if your into cycling a 800mile 360′ tour of the entire country can be arranged, if surfing is your thing then head to the East Coast, climbers and canyoneers are spoilt for choice amongst the centre of the island where there are 286 summits above 3000m. 

Certainly one of the most overlooked countries for Adventure Travel!

Outdoor Education & Experiences